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Topic Subject:EDITED Rome: Eternal City of the Romans
Mons Badonicus
Legionary
posted 14 January 2016 00:54 EDT (US)         
WORK IN PROGRESS


Rome: Eternal City of the Romans




Fig. 1
Rome: Total War revolves around Rome. The long campaign goals for each faction include taking Rome. So why not start with the city that everyone wants?


Today:

Area: 1,285 square km
Population: 2.627 million (2012)
Ethinicity: 90.5% Italian 4.7% Non-Italian Europeans 4.8% Non-Italian Non-Europeans
Religion: Roman Catholic, Islamic minority


The Founding

The Legend

The founding of Rome is linked to Aeneas, the Trojan escapee, but this is where the Roman story really began.
According to Roman legend, the twins Romulus and Remus were the founders of Rome. Their mother was Rhea Silvia. Now, Rhea was the daughter of the king of Alba Longa, Numitor. But then Numitor's brother, Amulius, usurped the throne and killed Numitor and his sons. Rhea was forced to become a Vestal Virgin, however, with the help of the war god Mars, she gave birth to the twins Romulus and Remus. Then she had to abandon them in fear of Amulius. Now, we all know the story, but I'll tell you anyway. The two twins were found by a she-wolf who looked after them until they were old enough to fend for themselves. They got jobs as shepherds but then, Remus got into a conflict with Amulius' shepherds. Remus was captured and Amulius learned of his identity. However, Romulus liberated his brother sometime afterwards.


Fig. 2
The she-wolf who suckled Romulus and Remus, later to become the Roman symbol.

Romulus and Remus got the local tribes to band together and form a city. This is the part where Remus dies. How? Well, Romulus and his supporters built the city on the Palatine Hill, but Remus mocked the new city's walls, claiming that they could not be relied on for defense. In a final insult, Remus jumped over the city wall but was killed by Romulus who said that anyone who dared to follow his twin would be likewise killed. However, Romulus did bury his brother with respect and honour.


Fig. 3
The Rape of the Sabine Women
The next act of Romulus was the 'The Rape of the Sabine Women'. Basically, Romulus invited the neighbouring tribes to a feast. Then he abducted all the women to provide wives for his city. As you can imagine, the Sabine tribes weren't very happy and declared war on Rome. Eventually, the two sides resolved their grievances and the Sabine king Titus Tatius became co-ruler of Rome alongside Romulus, uniting the Romans and Sabines.
Around this time, not long after the founding of the city, Romulus assembled a class of patricians into the 'Senate'. The word Senate originates from Latin 'senex' meaning 'old man'. The Senate was originally formed as an advisory council to the ruling king, but as wel will se later, it became much more than that.


Reality
What really happened has been lost in the mists of time, but some say that the tribes in the area banded together under some great leader (who was immortalized as Romulus). The settlement itself probably came into existence during the 8th century BC. The tribes that founded Rome were probably a loose confederation of Latin tribes, much like Germania, Gaul, Britannia, Dacia, Scythia, etc. are represented in Rome: Total War. The population of Rome was not very big at the time: a small village. It could be comparable to the size of a small town or village: in the hundreds.

The Romans worshipped a variety of gods, heavily influenced by Greek culture. The Roman gods like Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury were all based on their Greek counterparts. There is also evidence that their religion was heavily influenced by the Etruscans. The Etruscans believed in a sort of Latin animism. However, where as the Romans got their gods from the Greeks, they got their practices from the Etruscans. The Etruscans would not undertake any major task without first consulting their gods.

The Etruscans, being the Romans' immediate neighbour, also influenced the Roman language, art and architecture. For example, the words 'arena', 'autumn', 'belt', 'ceremony', 'market', 'military', 'person/people' and 'satellite' were all originally Etruscan words that were integrated into Latin. What's weird is that Etruscan is not related to any other language on Earth, but an inscription at Lemnos unearthed an alphabet eerily similar to that of the Etruscans. The modern Latin alphabet was influenced by that of the Etruscans, which was derived from the Phoenician alphabet.

The military of Rome at this time was also developing. Where before, the 'army' was a band of warrior-shepherds who occasionally raided other tribes but rarely fought pitched battles, now the Romans employed an army based on the Greek model of warfare, with heavily armoured hoplites and cavalrymen drawn from the higher echelons of society and the poorer citizens forming rorarii (which have been speculated to be either reserve troops or skirmishers like the velites).

The Kings

At some point in history, Rome was defeated by and eclipsed by the Etruscans, who fought in the phalanx formation but at the time of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, they may have fought in a way that inspired the Camillan reforms (Etruscan hastati, principes, triarii, velites, equites, etc.)


Servius Tullius: Sixth King


Fig. 4
King Servius Tullius, the Sixth King and the Second Etruscan King of Rome
Rome fell under the influence of the Etruscan dynasty, which reached its height under King Servius Tullius. He was apparently the first king to succeed not through an election but with popular support and through blood links. Under him, the armies of Rome fought in such a way that they were called 'phalanx legions'. Tullius was originally an Etruscan slave who rose to power and married the daughter of the first Etruscan king.

He was, unlike his successor, Superbus, a popular king. He introduced several reforms such as the introduction of coins. He, despite opposition from the patrician classes, expanded Roman citizenship to include more people and in general improved the situation of the peasants and the proletarii or plebeians. For this reason he was greatly loved. His rule saw the expansion of the city's boundaries to include the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Esquiline Hills. He introduced several reforms to Rome. Some of these reforms paved the way for the founding of the Republic. His reign, however, ended brutally when Lucius Tarquinius Superbus murdered him and left his corpse to rot in the streets of Rome.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus: Seventh King

Fig. 5
King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the Seventh and Last King of Rome
Tarquinius was the Seventh and Final King of Rome.
His career debuts by overthrowing Servius in a brutal coup d'etat. His wife, Tullia, had been urging him to gain more power in the Senate, with the ultimate goal of becoming king. He sowed discontent for Servius among the patrician senators and persuaded some of them to join his cause.

Eventually, Tarquinius felt that it was time to overthrow the old but still popular Servius. He went to the Senate, accompanied by a group of armed men and sat on the throne. He declared himself king and ordered the senators to serve him. He denounced Servius, saying that he was a slave whose parents were slaves. He also accused Servius of being an illegitimate king because he had risen to power because the people had supported him and because his mother had supported the decision. He criticized Servius for ruining Rome by improving the situation of the poor and ignoring the wealthy, for distributing excess land to the poor and not the rich, and for introducing the census so the rich people could be kept in line.

Tarquinius' reign mas marked by cruelty and slaughter. He eventually exhausted the populace because of the constant building projects. To appease the population, Tarquinius embarked on a campaign against the Rutuli, who were wealthy. He hoped to plunder them after storming the city. However, his assault failed and he had to besiege the city in hope of wearing the defenders out. Meanwhile, during the lull in fighting, the nobles and officers in the army turned to drinking and boasting to fill the time. Eventually the subject of conversation turned to the nobles' wives. Lucius Tarqunius Collatinus claimed to have the most loyal and beautiful wife. Collatinus, along with his friends, visited their wives in secret. They found all of the wives to be partying and enjoying themselves, with the exception of Collatinus' wife, Lucretia, who was, as Collatinus claimed, beautiful and loyal.

Now the plot thickens. Sextus Tarquinius, the king's son, looked at Lucretia. He desired to have Lucretia, so he returned to Collatia (the residence of Lucretia and Collatinus) in secret. He demanded that she have sex with him, and when she refused, Sextus threatened to kill her and weave a cover-up story. This story claimed that Lucretia had been caught in the act of adultery with a slave. To maintain her husband's reputation and out of fear of her life, she submitted to Sextus' depraved whims. But after Sextus left to rejoin the Roman camp, Lucretia summoned her husband and father and disclosed the affair. Despite pleas from her family, Lucretia took her own life because she could not bear the shame.


Fig. 6
Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus


Fig. 7
Lucius Junius Brutus (Brutus is on the right)


Collatinus, his father-in-law Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus, and his companions Lucius Junius Brutus (his descendants, the Junii Brutii are represented in-game as the House of Brutii) and Publius Valerii henceforth swore a promise: to oust the king and banish him and his family from Rome. Brutus was the Tribune of the Celeres. This meant that he was the leader of the king's bodyguard. This also meant that he had the power to summon the comitia, basically a committee of Roman citizens. Brutus summoned the comitia. He enumerated the various unsettled grievances between the king and Rome as a whole.

--------------------------------------------------------------
Bibliography
1. Rome - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome
2. History of Rome - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rome
3. Servius Tullius - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Servius_Tullius
4. Lucius Tarquinius Superbus - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Tarquinius_Superbus
--------------------------------------------------------------
I added a large section on Tarquinius and am planning to do more tomorrow. The internet at our house is functional but really slow, so it's a lot harder to upload images.

Also, Fig. 7 still appears as a really small image even though I tried to resize it. I dunno why......

Ave
Mons

Papers, please.

[This message has been edited by Mons Badonicus (edited 01-14-2016 @ 00:55 AM).]

AuthorReplies:
Mons Badonicus
Legionary
posted 22 March 2016 02:50 EDT (US)     1 / 7       
Feedback pls.

Papers, please.
KimJongLi
Legionary
posted 22 March 2016 03:19 EDT (US)     2 / 7       
You basically copy pasted a wikipedia page lol. to make it look like you didn't, use footnotes and easybib. At the bottom of the wikipedia page there are always footnotes, copy the relevant ones.

(づ ̄  ̄づ ヾ(*⌒ヮ⌒*)ゞ (-'๏_๏'-) 。◕‿◕。 ๏[-ิ_ิ]๏ (ิ_ิ? (/ิ_ิ/ ,,l, (^_^) ,l,, U^_^U =^_^=
General Sajaru
Tribunus Laticlavius
posted 22 March 2016 18:43 EDT (US)     3 / 7       
We're not in the practice of just copying other people's work, so if this is indeed a copy/paste of a Wikipedia page- or any pre-existing article, I'd request that you revise it.

"Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction." - Ronald Reagan
"Judge them not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
"Pick up a rifle and you change instantly from a subject to a citizen." - Jeff Cooper
"I like my enemies like James Bond likes his martinis- shaken, not stirred."
My first book, The King's Own
Mons Badonicus
Legionary
posted 23 March 2016 00:08 EDT (US)     4 / 7       
Thanks
Thats strange, I did simplify a lot of the content for the layman to understand.
This is partyly due to my writing style. I can see why people think I copy and paste stuff.
A lot of this is general knowledge for me
I used Wikipedia as a backup
I will revise... I have plenty of time now, so...

Papers, please.
KimJongLi
Legionary
posted 23 March 2016 01:03 EDT (US)     5 / 7       
He did not copy it directly, it is a summary of what he has found accross those pages in his own words, which is great and entirely fine.

I just thought that a look at his very simplified bibliography may prompt readers to believe that it is a copy, so i suggested revising his bibliography to make it look more like a professional piece.

(づ ̄  ̄づ ヾ(*⌒ヮ⌒*)ゞ (-'๏_๏'-) 。◕‿◕。 ๏[-ิ_ิ]๏ (ิ_ิ? (/ิ_ิ/ ,,l, (^_^) ,l,, U^_^U =^_^=

[This message has been edited by KimJongLi (edited 03-23-2016 @ 01:04 AM).]

Mary11
Legionary
posted 08 June 2017 07:07 EDT (US)     6 / 7       
Hi guys. I am a new member to this forum. Nice to meet you here. looking forward to have a great time.
Terikel Grayhair
Imperator
(id: Terikel706)
posted 08 June 2017 10:48 EDT (US)     7 / 7       
Welcome, Mary 11, to our hallowed halls.

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Somewhere over the EXCO Rainbow
Master Skald, Order of the Silver Quill, Guild of the Skalds
Champion of the Sepia Joust- Joust I, II, IV, VI, VII, VIII
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